Income Tax Brackets in Belgium: Explained

Navigating the intricate landscape of income tax brackets in Belgium?

You’re in the right place! In this comprehensive guide, we’ll decode the complexities, providing you with a clear understanding of how income taxes are structured in Belgium.

Whether you’re a resident or planning to move, understanding these brackets is crucial for managing your finances effectively.

Let’s dive in!

What Is An Income Tax In Belgium?

Income tax in Belgium is a direct tax imposed on the income of individuals, including residents and non-residents, earned within the country’s borders. 

It is a significant source of revenue for the Belgian government and is used to fund public services, infrastructure, social welfare programs, and other governmental expenditures.

The Belgian income tax system is progressive, meaning that the tax rate increases as income levels rise. Different tax rates are applied to various income brackets, with higher-income earners generally subject to higher tax rates. 

Additionally, tax deductions, credits, and exemptions may be available to reduce taxable income and lower the overall tax liability for eligible individuals.

Belgium Individual Income Tax Brackets For 2023

The Belgian Ministry of Finance has released the annual index changes for the 2023 tax year (2024 assessment year). This comprises, among other things, the 2023 individual income tax brackets. 

The usual brackets and rates are listed below:

  • Up to EUR – 15,200 – 25%
  • Over EUR 15,200 up to 26,830 – 40%
  • Over 26,830 up to 46,440 – 45%
  • Over EUR 46,440 – 50%

The brackets and rates for determining the effects of allowances are as follows:

  • Up to EUR 10,680- 25%
  • Over EUR 10,680 up to 15,200- 30%
  • Over EUR 15,200 up to 25,330 – 40%
  • Over EUR 25,330 up to 46,440 – 45%
  • Over EUR 46,440 – 50%

In both circumstances, the number of categories and rates stay unchanged from 2022, although bracket thresholds increase. The various allowances used to determine tax payable are often increased as well.

Belgium Individual Income Tax Brackets For 2022

Belgium has set the individual income tax brackets and rates for the financial year 2022 (2023 assessment year). 

The usual brackets and rates are listed below:

  • Up to EUR 13,870 – 25% 
  • Over EUR 13,870 up to 24,480 – 40%
  • Over 24,480 to 42,370: 45% 
  • Over EUR 42,370: 50%

The brackets and rates for determining the effects of allowances are as follows:

For amounts up to EUR 9,750, a 25% discount applies. 

  • Up to €13,870 – 30% 
  • Up to €23,120 – 40% 
  • Up to €42,370 – 45% 
  • Over EUR42,370 – 50%

In both scenarios, the number of brackets and rates stay unchanged from 2021, while bracket thresholds increase. The numerous allowances that apply in calculating tax payable are generally increased as well.

Tax Classes In Belgium

In Belgium, tax classes are categories used to determine the taxation of individuals based on their marital status and family situation. There are currently four tax classes:

Class 1: This tax class is for single individuals, widows, or widowers who do not have any dependent children. Individuals in this tax class are taxed based solely on their income. 

They file their tax returns independently and do not benefit from any additional deductions or credits related to dependent children or a spouse.

Class 1a: Single individuals, widows, or widowers with dependent children fall into this tax class. Dependent children can include minors, disabled children, or children who are studying and under the age of 25

Individuals in this tax class may be eligible for certain tax benefits or deductions related to their dependent children, such as child tax credits or deductions for childcare expenses.

Class 2: Married couples or legal cohabitants who choose to be taxed jointly are in this tax class. When filing jointly, the combined income of both partners is taken into account for tax purposes. 

This can sometimes result in a lower overall tax liability compared to filing separately, as certain tax credits or deductions may be more beneficial when applied to the combined income of both partners.

Class 2a: This tax class is for married couples or legal cohabitants who opt to be taxed separately. In this case, each partner’s income is assessed individually for tax purposes. 

While filing separately may provide more flexibility in certain situations, such as when one partner has significant deductions or credits that could reduce their tax liability, it’s essential to carefully evaluate whether filing jointly or separately is more advantageous overall.

How To Know Your Tax Class In Belgium?

In Belgium, your tax class is typically determined by your marital status and family situation. Here’s how you can determine your tax class:

Marital Status: If you are single, widowed, or widowed without dependent children, you typically fall into tax Class 1. If you are married or in a legal cohabitation, you generally fall into tax Class 2.

Dependent Children: If you have dependent children, you may be eligible for tax Class 1a, regardless of your marital status. Dependent children can include minors, disabled children, or children under the age of 25 who are still in education.

Joint or Separate Taxation: If you are married or in a legal cohabitation, you can choose to be taxed jointly (Class 2) or separately (Class 2a). If you opt for joint taxation, your combined income is considered for tax purposes. If you choose separate taxation, each partner’s income is assessed individually.

To confirm your tax class and ensure accurate taxation, you should review your situation and consult with a tax advisor or the Belgian tax authorities. 

They can provide guidance based on your specific circumstances and help you understand any tax benefits or implications associated with your tax class. 

Additionally, you may find information about your tax class on documents such as your tax assessment notice or through online tax portals provided by the Belgian government.

What Is The Application Procedure To Pay Taxes In Belgium?

To pay taxes in Belgium, you typically follow these general steps:

  1. Register with the Belgian Tax Authorities: If you are living and/or working in Belgium, you need to register with the Belgian tax authorities. You can do this by contacting your local tax office or visiting their website to obtain the necessary forms and instructions.
  2. Obtain Your Tax Identification Number (NIS Number): After registering, you will receive a tax identification number known as a “Numéro d’Identification Sociale” (NIS) in French or “Rijksregisternummer” in Dutch. This number is essential for all tax-related transactions and communications with the tax authorities.
  3. Declare Your Income: As a resident taxpayer in Belgium, you are required to declare your income earned during the tax year to the Belgian tax authorities. 

This includes income from employment, self-employment, investments, property, and any other sources. You typically do this by filing an annual tax return.

  1. File Your Tax Return: Tax returns in Belgium are typically filed annually. The deadline for filing your tax return varies depending on your situation but is usually between May and June of the following year.

You can file your tax return electronically through the Tax-on-Web platform provided by the Belgian government or by submitting a paper form to your local tax office.

  1. Calculate Your Tax Liability: Once you have submitted your tax return, the Belgian tax authorities will calculate your tax liability based on the information provided. They will determine the amount of tax you owe or any tax refunds you may be entitled to.
  2. Pay Your Taxes: If you owe taxes, you will receive a tax assessment notice detailing the amount owed and the deadline for payment. 

You can pay your taxes through various methods, including bank transfer, online payment, or at designated payment centers. It’s essential to ensure that you pay your taxes by the deadline to avoid any penalties or interest charges.

  1. Keep Records: It’s important to keep records of your income, expenses, and any supporting documents related to your tax return for a certain period.

The Belgian tax authorities may request these documents for verification purposes, so it’s crucial to maintain accurate records.

  1. Seek Professional Advice if Needed: Taxation in Belgium can be complex, especially for expatriates or individuals with diverse income sources.

If you’re unsure about any aspect of your tax obligations or need assistance with tax planning, consider seeking advice from a qualified tax advisor or accountant familiar with Belgian tax law.

By following these steps and fulfilling your tax obligations, you can ensure compliance with Belgian tax laws and contribute to the country’s public finances.

How To Reduce Your Tax In Belgium?

Reducing your tax liability in Belgium can be achieved through various legal strategies and actions. 

Here are some common methods to consider:

Maximize Deductions and Tax Credits: Take advantage of deductions and tax credits available under Belgian tax law. These may include deductions for mortgage interest, contributions to pension schemes, charitable donations, healthcare expenses, and education expenses. 

Be sure to keep records of these expenses to support your claims on your tax return.

Invest in Tax-Efficient Accounts: Consider investing in tax-efficient accounts such as pension savings plans (pensioensparen/épargne-pension), long-term savings accounts (langetermijnsparen/épargne à long terme), and life insurance products that offer tax benefits. 

Contributions to these accounts may qualify for tax deductions, reducing your taxable income.

Utilize Tax-Advantaged Investments: Explore investment options that offer tax advantages, such as certain types of retirement accounts, investment funds, and savings accounts specifically designed to reduce tax liability.

Consult with a financial advisor to identify investment opportunities that align with your financial goals and tax situation.

Employment Benefits: Take advantage of employment benefits provided by your employer, such as meal vouchers, eco vouchers, and other non-cash benefits. These benefits may be exempt from income tax or subject to favorable tax treatment.

Consider Splitting Income: If you’re married or in a legal cohabitation, consider optimizing your tax situation by strategically splitting income between spouses or partners.

This may involve allocating income-generating assets or investment accounts to the partner in the lower tax bracket to minimize the overall tax burden.

Tax Planning for Capital Gains: Be strategic with your capital gains by timing the sale of assets to minimize tax liability. In Belgium, capital gains on certain assets, such as shares held for more than one year, may be subject to reduced tax rates or exempt from taxation.

Take Advantage of Expat Tax Benefits: If you’re an expatriate living and working in Belgium, explore tax benefits available to expatriates, such as the special tax regime for foreign executives or tax incentives for researchers and highly skilled workers.

These programs may offer preferential tax treatment or exemptions for certain types of income.

Consult a Tax Professional: Tax laws and regulations can be complex, and the best approach to minimizing your tax liability will depend on your circumstances.

Consider seeking advice from a qualified tax advisor or accountant who can provide personalized tax planning strategies tailored to your situation.

By implementing these strategies and staying informed about changes in tax laws, you can effectively reduce your tax liability in Belgium while remaining compliant with legal requirements.

However, it’s essential to ensure that any tax planning strategies you pursue are in line with Belgian tax regulations and do not involve tax evasion or avoidance schemes.

When Do You Have To Change Your Tax Class In Belgium?

In Belgium, you may need to change your tax class under certain circumstances. Here are some common situations that may require a change in tax class:

Marital Status Change: If your marital status changes due to marriage, divorce, legal separation, or the death of a spouse or partner, you will typically need to update your tax class. For example:

If you get married or enter into a legal cohabitation, you may switch from tax Class 1 (single) to tax Class 2 (married or cohabiting).

If you divorce or are legally separate from your spouse or partner, you may switch from tax Class 2 (married or cohabiting) to tax Class 1 (single).

Change in Family Situation: If your family situation changes, such as the birth or adoption of a child, the departure of a dependent child, or a change in the number of dependent children, you may need to update your tax class. For example:

If you have a child and were previously in tax Class 1, you may switch to tax Class 1a (single with dependent children).

If your last dependent child leaves the household, you may switch from tax Class 1a to tax Class 1.

Change in Income Distribution: If you’re married or in a legal cohabitation and previously opted for separate taxation (tax Class 2a), but you and your partner decide to switch to joint taxation (tax Class 2), you will need to update your tax class accordingly.

Change in Residency Status: If you move to or from Belgium, your tax status may change, potentially requiring a change in tax class. Non-residents and residents are subject to different tax rules and classifications.

Change in Employment Status: If you change jobs, retire, become self-employed, or experience a significant change in income, you may need to review your tax class to ensure it accurately reflects your current situation.

It’s essential to notify the Belgian tax authorities of any changes in your personal or financial circumstances promptly. You can typically update your tax class by submitting the necessary documentation or notifying the tax office directly. 

Failure to update your tax class when required could result in incorrect tax assessments or penalties for non-compliance. 

Therefore, it’s advisable to stay informed about your tax obligations and seek guidance from a tax professional if you’re unsure about any changes that may affect your tax class.


As we conclude this exploration of income tax brackets in Belgium, you now possess a deeper understanding of how taxation works in this country.

Armed with this knowledge, you’re better equipped to make informed financial decisions. Ready to optimize your tax situation?

Dive deeper into our resources and empower yourself to navigate Belgium’s tax system with confidence.

Empowered & Goodbye!

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